Behavioural study on unfair commercial practices in the digital environment: Dark patterns and manipulative personalisation

April 24, 2023
European Commission

"According to the mystery shopping exercise, 97% of the most popular websites and apps used by EU consumers deployed at least one dark pattern and the most prevalent were (1) hidden information/false hierarchy, (2) preselection, (3) nagging, (4) difficult cancellations, and (5) forced registration."

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