Illuminating manipulative design: From ‘dark patterns’ to information asymmetry and the repression of free choice under the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive

April 4, 2023
M.R. Leiser (Mark); Wen-Ting Yang

This article identifies seventeen types of "dark patterns," manipulative design techniques used in apps and websites, and proposes a new taxonomy consistent with the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive (UCPD). Focusing on "Information Asymmetry" and "Free Choice Repression" categories, the paper offers policy recommendations to enhance the regulation of dark patterns for commercial purposes.

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